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To study smart and ace your exams, you should study with the understanding of what you would be specifically tested on, and what are the expected learning outcomes as set by the GCE A-level Singapore Examinations and Assessment Board.

Below is some key information about “Thermal Physics” as an A-level H2 Physics exam topic, and the desired learning outcomes.




  • Thermal equilibrium
  • Temperature scales
  • Equation of state
  • Kinetic theory of gases
  • Kinetic energy of a molecule

Learning Outcomes

A-level H2 Physics candidates should be able to:

  • show an understanding that regions of equal temperature are in thermal equilibrium
  • explain how empirical evidence leads to the gas laws and to the idea of an absolute scale of temperature (i.e. the thermodynamic scale that is independent of the property of any particular substance and has an absolute zero)
  • convert temperatures measured in degrees Celsius to kelvin: T/K = T / °C + 273.15
  • recall and use the equation of state for an ideal gas expressed as pV = nRT, where n is the amount of gas in moles
  • state that one mole of any substance contains 6.02 × 1023 particles and use the Avogadro number NA = 6.02 × 1023 mol–1
  • state the basic assumptions of the kinetic theory of gases
  • explain how molecular movement causes the pressure exerted by a gas and hence derive the relationship pV = (⅓)Nm<c2>, where N is the number of gas molecules (a simple model considering one-dimensional collisions and then extending to three dimensions using (⅓)<c2> = <cx2> is sufficient)
  • recall and apply the relationship that the mean kinetic energy of a molecule of an ideal gas is proportional to the thermodynamic temperature (i.e. (1/2)m<c2> = (3/2)kT) to new situations or to solve related problems.




  • Specific heat capacity and specific latent heat
  • Internal energy
  • First law of thermodynamics

Learning Outcomes

A-level H2 Physics candidates should be able to:

  • define and use the concepts of specific heat capacity and specific latent heat
  • show an understanding that internal energy is determined by the state of the system and that it can be expressed as the sum of a random distribution of kinetic and potential energies associated with the molecules of a system
  • relate a rise in temperature of a body to an increase in its internal energy
  • recall and use the first law of thermodynamics expressed in terms of the increase in internal energy, the heat supplied to the system and the work done on the system.

[Source: Above information is extracted from the Singapore Examinations & Assessment Board Singapore-Cambridge A-level H2 Physics Syllabus 9749 for the Year 2022 – ]


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