Describe an experiment to show how the period of pendulum can be determined
The simple pendulum is made to oscillate at a small angle.
When the oscillation is steady, the time taken for 20 oscillations is measured using a stopwatch.
The measurement is repeated and the average is calculated.
The period of the pendulum is given by average time for 20 oscillations divided by 20.
State the precautions you would take for the experiment.
Ensure that the oscillation is steady before starting to time.
Ensure that the angular displacement of the bob is less than 10 degrees.
Describe how you would obtain experimentally accurate values for internal (external) diameter of a thick metal pipe.
Use internal (external) jaws of vernier calipers to measure the internal (external) diameters of the pipe at three different positions.
Take the average values of the measurements.
Why is there a need to obtain the average of several readings?
To reduce random errors (the positive errors and negative errors will cancel out)